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Spotlight: Asthma Health Disparities Among Minority Populations

Health disparities affect different communities in different ways, especially when considering racial and ethnic inequities. Individuals within minority groups often experience reduced access to care and less representation in clinical trials. These factors, coupled with socioeconomic barriers to accessing preventive health care and treatment, can affect their short- and long-term care.1,2 This is true among those with a variety of diseases and conditions, including asthma.

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Causes of health disparities among minority groups

Black and Hispanic populations are greatly affected by the burden of asthma. These groups experience poor asthma outcomes at disproportionately high percentages due to socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental causes. PThey also experience higher rates of hospitalizations and deaths due to asthma. This has primarily been attributed to inequitable access to preventive care.3

Poverty, which is strongly correlated with ethnicity, is a primary risk factor for developing asthma in the US. Those who live in poverty are more likely to experience long-term exposure to pollution, to smoke and be exposed to smoke, live in homes with higher indoor allergen levels, and experience lower access to healthcare due to income and proximity to hospitals and clinics.4,5

Varieties of asthma health disparities

Some health inequities in asthma are due to a combination of multiple socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental causes. For example, the risk of developing asthma is increased with long-term exposure to allergens in the home, such as dust mites or mold.3 Long-term exposure can occur due to a variety of factors, including:

  • Socioeconomic: Mold and dust mite removal is expensive and time-consuming
  • Cultural: Language or literacy barriers may keep minority communities from seeking assistance with removing the allergen(s) and/or receiving appropriate healthcare for treating side effects
  • Environmental: It may not be obvious, depending on the location of the allergen in the home, that the allergen is there

It is also less likely that members of minority groups, especially children, will receive control medications for their asthma.3 Some of the causes for this may include:

  • Socioeconomic: Access to care, such as regular doctor visits, may not be affordable
  • Cultural: Parents of children with asthma may experience distrust of doctors and/or medication or have poor communication with their physicians
  • Environmental: A doctor and/or pharmacy may not exist in a travelable range

How can these disparities be improved?

There are some programs that address asthma education and outreach among minority populations. These programs address factors that may be keeping individuals with asthma from getting the most out of their care, such as ineffective use of an inhaler. However, there is a continuous need for improved access to asthma care.3

Minority groups represent a continuously growing portion of the population in the United States. However, people of color are still underrepresented in long-term health data.2 To compare asthma health disparities among various populations, current health data needs to be collected and analyzed. This health data can then be used to improve and develop asthma intervention programming.

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This article represents the opinions, thoughts, and experiences of the author; none of this content has been paid for by any advertiser. The Asthma.net team does not recommend or endorse any products or treatments discussed herein. Learn more about how we maintain editorial integrity here.

  1. Medical School Blog. St. George's University website. https://www.sgu.edu/blog/medical/pros-discuss-the-importance-of-diversity-in-health-care/. Accessed January 29, 2020.
  2. Fisher JA, Kalbaugh CA. Challenging assumptions about minority participation in US clinical research. American Journal of Public Health. 2011;101(12):2217-2222. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300279.
  3. The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America and The National Pharmaceutical Council. Ethnic disparities in the burden and treatment of asthma. https://www.aafa.org/media/1633/ethnic-disparities-burden-treatment-asthma-report.pdf. Accessed January 29, 2020.
  4. Forno E, Celedón JC. Asthma and ethnic minorities: socioeconomic status and beyond. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;9:154–160.
  5. Forno E, Celedon J. Health disparities in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2012;185(10):1033-1035. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201202-0350ED.

Comments

  • jmpstart2k
    7 days ago

    It is not entirely accurate that “Hispanics” experience high rates of asthma. In fact, if you look at rates of asthma for Hispanics as a group, they experience the lowest rates of asthma (https://www.cdc.gov/asthma/most_recent_national_asthma_data.htm). If, however, you also look at the various sub groups, Puerto Ricans have the highest rates of asthma.

  • csmocks
    1 week ago

    However, people of color are still underrepresented in long-term health data.2 To compare asthma health disparities among various populations, current health data needs to be collected and analyzed. This health data can then be used to improve and develop asthma intervention programming.

    How do collect this data? How do we make this research happen?

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